Pulgas

» Descripción - ciclo de vida de Pulgas

Francés: Puces

Son ectoparásitos de animales de sangre caliente (aves y mamíferos), temporales comprimidos, por lo que pueden moverse entre sus pelos y plumas, de los que chupan sangre.

No tienen alas, tiene un color oscuro y patas posteriores desarrolladas para saltar hasta 200 veces su tamaño.

Los adultos varían de tamaño entre 1,5 y 4 mm y al picar producen prurito en la zona de la picadura debido al efecto irrirante de la saliva.

Las larvas no son parásitas y se alimentan de detritus.

Las pulgas no mantienen una relación dependiente con el huésped ya que pueden pasar a otro o abandonarlo temporalmente para volver a parasitarlo en función de sus necesidades y además pueden pasar largas temporadas sin alimentarse.

Pocas veces están adaptadas a una sola especie animal; una misma especie de pulga pede ser hallada en varios mamíferos o aves y, a la inversa, un mismo huésped puede ser portador de varias especies de pulgas.

Las eclosiones masivas de larvas se desencadenan por incrementos bruscos de temperatura y vibraciones.

Viven cerca de sus huéspedes: en el polvo, basura, alfombras, rendijas del suelo y paredes.

» Daños /Enfermedades transmitidas / Importancia sanitaria de Pulgas

- Todas las especies de pulgas pueden picar a los humanos como hospedadores alternativos, ya que muchas especies poseen baja especificidad. Los sitios de picaduras son principalmente las piernas y la cintura.

- La picadura provoca irritación, con pápulas urticarianas lineales o agrupadas. En personas alérgicas las lesiones pueden ser más severas (laceraciones, alopecias). El rascado puede producir sobreinfección bacteriana.

- Pueden trasmitir enfermedades al hombre. Las especies de mayor importancia son:

- Xenopsylla cheopis (pulga de las ratas). Vector del tifus murino causado por Rickettsia mooseri (= R. typhi), Vector de la peste bubónica producida por la bacteria Yersinia pestis (= Pasteurella pestis). Otras pestes que puede trasmitir son la pneumónica primaria y la septicemia primaria.
La peste bubónica produce una inflamación de los nódulos linfáticos, llegando en casos severos a la ruptura de estos ganglios. Es fatal en casi el 50% de los casos no tratados. La pneumónica primaria involucra a los pulmones y es muy contagiosa. La septicemia primaria es una infección generalizada de la sangre, que
tiene escasa manifestación en los nódulos linfáticos, debido probablemente a que la sangre es invadida tan rápidamente que la inflamación ganglionar no alcanza a desarrollar.

- Polygenis abarca el mayor número de especies de nuestro país, que actúan manteniendo a Y. pestis entre animales silvestres (forma silvestre de la peste bubónica), principalmente roedores, que actúan como reservorios de este patógeno.

- Pulex irritans (pulga del hombre), Ctenocephalides canis (pulga del perro) y C. felis (pulga del gato) son hospedadores intermediarios de la tenia Dipylidium caninum y D. felis. Esta tenia puede desarrollarse en el hombre si éste, inadvertidamente, ingiere la pulga infectada. P. irritans es vector de la peste bubónica y C. canis y C. felis pueden trasmitir a la filaria Dipetalonema reconditum que vive en el tejido subcutáneo.

- Tunga penetrans (nigua, pique, pulga de la arena o chigoe) provoca con el ingreso de la hembra fecundada, un leve prurito. La distensión del abdomen de la hembra, torna a la lesión oscura y dolorosa “verruga like”. Al eliminar los huevos se forma una cavidad que fácilmente puede sobreinfectarse,
con perilesiones inflamatorias. En casos excepcionales se puede llegar a la gangrena gaseosa y a la amputación espontánea del dedo del pie.

- Leptopsylla segnis: parásita de roedores urbanos. Eventualmente pica al hombre y transmite la peste entre roedores.

- Nosopsyllus fasciatus: asociada a ratones silvestres y urbanos. Transmite numerosos patógenos, entre ellos Hymenolepis spp, Y. pestis y Tripanosoma lewisi.

» Especies - tipos de Pulgas

Especies de importancia médico-veterinaria presentes en la Argentina:

- Familia Pulicidae: Xenopsylla cheopis, Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides canis y Ctenocephalides felis.
- Familia Tungidae: Tunga penetrans.
- Familia Ceratophyllidae: Nosopsyllus fasciatus.
- Familia Leptopsyllidae: Leptosylla segnis.
- Familia Rhopalopsyllidae: Polygenis spp.

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  • » Pulgas y garrapatas: una plaga controlable

  • » Soluciones Caseras - recetas caseras contra Pulgas

    Para repeler pulgas:

    - Esparcir semillas de camomilla, lavanda o cilantro en el canasto de su mascota.
    - Plantar estas hierbas en su jardín o patio. El olor de estas plantas repele las pulgas.
    - Masajear la mascota con aceite de eucalipto.
    - Colocar ramas de eucalipto bajo las camas, esto ahuyenta a estos insectos.
    - Agregar levadura y ajo a los alimentos de tu mascota
    - Darle ajo en las comidas a las mascotas.
    - Utilizar cáscaras de naranja y agregar agua hirviendo, tapar y dejar reposar, cuando el agua se torne de color naranja colar. Aplicar sobre el cuerpo de la mascota al finalizar el baño.
    - Fumigar con agua y aceite de lavanda las habitaciones de la casa u oficina para ahuyentarlas.
    - Hacer una mezcla con 30 ml de aceite de oliva con 10 gotas de aceite esencial de lavanda, tomillo o eucalipto y esparcir en el lugar infestado. Frotar a las mascotas con unas gotas de esta preparación.
    - Bañar a tu mascota con cascara de limon preparandola previamente con agua en un recipiente de vidrio y limpio.
    - 5 cucharadas de: hojas de eucalipto, romero y pennroyal (si encuentra). Molidas 1 taza de maicena.
    Mezcle bien y esparza en los lugares dónde se encuentran, garaje, mascotas (pelaje). Cubra el frasco, le durará hasta que las hojas pierdan su olor.

    Muy efectivo resulta el siguiente truco: en una habitación cerrada poner un plato con una vela, con agua, un poco de detergente y aceite. Dejar durante varias horas, las pulgas saltan a la luz y se ahogan en el plato con agua. El detergente evita que queden flotando.

    Mezclar árbol de té, eucaliptus, menta, romero y aceite de lavanda, y hacerlos hervir en agua. Luego, rociar esta mezcla en las alfombras y otros lugares de la casa que atraigan a las pulgas.

    Otra solución es es aceite de árbol de té, aplicado en la base del cuello (entre los homóplatos) de perros y gatos, adonde éstos no puedan lamerse ni limpiar el líquido.

    Suplementos de vitaminas y minerales: clorella, algas del lago de Klamath, spirulina y ajo ayudan a hacer de gatos y perros unos malos anfitriones para las pulgas.

    » Prevención - medidas preventivas

    - Cepillar y peinar a tu mascota regularmente afuera de la casa

    - Bañar regularmente a tu mascota con agua y jabónes sencillos.

    - Asear periódicamente la vivienda y sus habitaciones. Los huevos, larvas y pupas se desarrollan en el medio externo y los estados adultos se guarecen en esos mismos sitios.

    -Aspirar todo vestigio de polvo o tierra del piso y alfombras, procurando mover muebles, camas y otros enseres que permanecen por largo tiempo en un mismo lugar.

    - Asear lugares donde duermen o permanecen los animales tales como perros y gatos, especialmente lavar y cambiar las cobijas, etc.

    » Links a otros sitios sobre Pulgas

    Fuente: Fundación Mundo Sano.

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